From the publisher of Amarigna & Tigrigna Qal Hieroglyphs for Beginners, by Legesse Allyn...
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Modern Egyptologists did not know how to read hieroglyphs until after 1799, when they discovered the so-called Rosetta Stone. The Rosetta Stone survives from the 350 BC to 30 BC Greek military occupation of ancient Gebts (Gebts is the ancient name of Egypt) and contains a Greek military propaganda message directed at the people of Gebts.

The problem was that the ancient Greeks, foreigners to Gebts, made countless spelling errors in their propaganda inscription, due to their inability to properly pronounce ancient Gebts words. The fact is that spellings were not yet standardized and writing out words with hieroglyphs required proper pronunciation -- you first pronounced a word and utilized hieroglyphic letters to spell it out.

When Egyptologists discovered the Rosetta Stone inscription in 1799, they mistakenly relied on the error-filled Rosetta Stone as their guide to learning to read hieroglyphs. The result was such confusion that Egyptologists were unable to match the ancient Gebts hieroglyphic language to any other language and proclaimed the ancient Gebts hieroglyphic language a dead one.

But Egyptologists only needed to look to today's Ethiopia/Eritrea for the  Source of the hieroglyphic language, proper pronunciation and spelling. As the ancient Greek historian Diodorus wrote:

"...the Egyptians are colonists sent out
by the Ethiopians, Osiris having been
the leader of the colony… the shapes
of their statues and the forms of their
letters are Ethiopian
."

After 20 years of careful examination, the hieroglyphic spelling errors have been discovered and corrected, published first in a book entitled, Amarigna & Tigrigna Qal Hieroglyphs for Beginners. Seeing that ancient Gebts was known as the Two Lands (Upper and Lower), it turns out that there were also two languages -- today's Tigrigna language was spoken in Lower Gebts (the northern division) and the Amarigna language was spoken in Upper Gebts (the southern division).



FREE EDUCATION RESOURCE

Hieroglyphalphabet.com

THE ACCURATE HIEROGLYPH ALPHABET GUIDE ONLINE
For the guide to properly pronouncing and spelling the words of the ancient Gebts hieroglyphs, please visit The Accurate Hieroglyph Alphabet Guide. You will see how each hieroglyphic letter is derived from the name of an object in the ancient Gebts language containing the letter for easy remembering. As an example, similar to how we today say, A for Apple, with hieroglyphs you would say, Ah for Amora. Visitors to this site would do well to learn the alphabet of both Amarigna and Tigrigna for proper pronunciation of hieroglyphic words.
HieroglyphAlphabet.com


FREE EDUCATION RESOURCES
History and language teachers and professors, feel free to download the PDF e-books below for use in your classrooms.

"Amarigna & Tigrigna Qal Hieroglyphs for Beginners"
By Legesse Allyn
Gebts is the ancient name of Egypt. Read the hieroglyphs for yourself in the languages of the Amara and Akele-Gezai merchants, from today's regions of Ethiopia and Eritrea, who founded ancient Gebts 5100 years ago. Their languages, Amarigna and Tigrigna, are the world's first written languages of commerce. Travelers to Egypt and students will especially benefit from this book.
Download Free E-Book Now!
For Limited Time
(right-click link to save e-book)






"Amarigna & Tigrigna Qal Rosetta Stone"
By Legesse Allyn
Legesse Allyn presents his first re-translation of ancient Gebts texts with, "Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Rosetta Stone." Perfect for getting a better understanding of the Amarigna/Tigrigna hieroglyphic system of the ancient Gebts language.






"Amarigna & Tigrigna Qal Roots of English"
By Legesse Allyn
Legesse Allyn presents his first re-translation of English words with, "Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of English." Perfect for getting a better understanding English words through their Amarigna and Tigrigna linguistic roots. And each Amarigna and Tigrigna root word of the listed English words are also accompanied by two hieroglyphs that represented them up to 5100 years ago in ancient Egypt.




 
 


Titles of Dignitaries that Appear in the Papyrus of Ani


There are many titled individuals listed on the Papyrus of Ani. Among them was Ani.

Ani's title was "Ras Tsehafi," or "Head Scribe." Ras is a common Ethiopian title. The "Ras" title was a popular title of the Ethiopian rulers of ancient Gebts (the ancient name of Egypt). Even in recent times, the Ras title was used by Haile Selassie as, "Ras Tefari." The title Ras meant "emperor" and "Tefari" means "one who is feared."

The Ras title is one of many titles that appear in the Papyrus of Ani.

ANI'S "RAS"/"CHIEF" TITLE



Above is the representation of An's name and title, read from right to left, "Ras Tshafi Ani," or "Head Scribe Ani."



Ani was not the only person in the papyrus with the Ras title.


THE "RAS"/"EMPEROR" TITLE


Source: Wikimedia

Above we can see the way a "Ras" emperor was portrayed in ancient Gebts art, regardless of who he was. The crown is the identifying feature of a "Ras" emperor.

If Haile Selassie were alive in those days, he would not be drawn as he actually looks, but would be portrayed in art exactly this same way. There were many Rasi-titled emperors who attended Ani's funeral.

Below we see a Ras. But while Ani was a "chief" Ras (head of his department), this is a "emperor" Ras. Here he is seen with his two wives...


Source: Wikimedia

Notice that the emperor's title above is written in hieroglphs differently from Ani's title as a chief. While Ani's title ends with the drawing of a regular person, the emperor title is drawn with a very powerful person, as seen here...



Various "Ras" emperors are shown in a visiting dignitary grid on the Papyrus of Ani, along with hieroglyphs of the various cities they rule. Here is a grouping of the many "Ras" emperors, listed on the Papyrus of Ani dignitary grid, who attended Ani's funeral...


Source: Wikimedia


THE "ATSETI"/"EMPRESS" TITLE


Source: Wikimedia

Above we see the way an "Atseti" empress was portrayed in ancient Gebts art. The "command" (n.) throne on the head is the identifying feature of an "Atseti" empress. No matter who she is, she would be portrayed this way in art. There were many Atseti-titled women who came to pay their last respects at Ani's funeral.

Many of the "Ras" emperors were accompanied by their wife or wives, the "Atseti" or "empress" would be his wife. In the case that he has a second wife, this would be his "Emebet" or "mother of the house," even though his Atseti could have children with him, too.

Here is a hieroglyphic breakdown of the titles of his wife or first wife, "Atseti"/"Empress"...



Above is the hieroglyphic representation ofthe "empress" title, read from right to left. The "Atseti" title is a feminine form of the masculine "Atse" title for an emperor. While the atse title is still in use in Ethiopia, the feminine form is not commonly used any longer.

The "-ti" suffix is often used to create a feminine form of a word in hieroglyphs. For example, "sew"/"man" in Amarigna adds the "-t" suffix to make "set"/"woman". In Tigrigna, "man" is "seb" while "woman" has the added "-ti" suffix to make "sebeyti".

Here is a hieroglyphic breakdown of the "Atseti" title, showing the "-ti" feminine suffix.



The "-ti" feminine suffix is actually a loaf of "dabo" Ethiopian bread, seen here...


Source: My Kitchen My Way: Ethiopia

Various "Atseti" empresses are shown in the visiting dignitary grid on the Papyrus of Ani, along with hieroglyphs of the various cities they are visiting from. Here is a grouping of the many "Atseti" empresses, listed on the Papyrus of Ani, who attended Ani's funeral...


Source: Wikimedia


THE "EMEBET"/"MOTHER OF THE HOUSE" TITLE


Source: Wikimedia

Above we see how the "Emebet" "Mother of the House" was portrayed in ancient Gebts art. The "messob" basket on top of the "bet" house is the identifying feature of an "Emebet"/"Mother of the House". No matter who she was, she would be portrayed this way in art. There were many Emebet-titled women at Ani's funeral.

As is still common in much of Africa today, men could have many wives, especially the rich and powerful. At least one of the "Ras" emperors' "Emembet"/"Mother of the House" accompanied her emperor husband

While the "Atseti"/"empress" title hieroglyph shows the "command" (n.) throne, showing she's the first wife of the Emperor, the "Emebet"/"Mother of the House" hieroglyph shows more of a domestic side to this titled wife.

The "Emebet"/"Mother of the House" title is shown in hieroglyphs with the "messob"/"basket" on top of a "bet"/"house."
We gave a breakdown for the Ras title. Here is a hieroglyphic breakdown of the title of second wife, "Emebet"/ "Mother of the House"...



Above is the representation ofthe "Emebet" title, a basket on top of a house.

Here is a hieroglyphic breakdown of the "Emebet" title.



While the Emebet basket is used to carry groceries from the market as well as to keep things in, best of all, it is used to eat from, as is seen here...


Source: Little Ethiopia: Great To Discover

With a woven base, the messob becomes a table...


Source: Fasika Ethiopian Restaurant, Boston, MA

Only one "Emebet"/"Mother of the House" is shown in the grid on the Papyrus of Ani, along with hieroglyphs of the city she is visiting from to attend Ani's funeral...


Source: Wikimedia


Other Titled Dignitaries

THE "HALAWI"/"PROTECTOR" TITLE

In Tigrigna, "halawi" (Tigrigna) means "protector." likely a governor under an Emperor.

But in at the case of the third "Halawi" shown below from the Papyrus of Ani dignitary grid, he may have been an Emperor or as powerful as one. This is due to the fact that it appears his wife accompanied him to Ani's funeral and her title is "Atseti."

Among the titled dignitaries attending Ani's funeral, shown in the Papyrus of Ani visiting dignitary grid, were the following four"Harawi" governors...


Source: Wikimedia


THE "RAEY"/"SEER" TITLE

The Amarigna and Tigrigna word "raey" means "vision/site". In Ancient Gebts, the "Raey" was a prophet... a visionary... a person who could see into the future. The "Raey" was likely invaluable to rulers.

The Jewish tradition also continues the "Raey" title with the Jewish "Ro'eh" title. "Ro'eh can mean a seer or prophet; someone who sees the invisible, which may be the present, past, future, invisible beings or kingdoms etc." (see "Unseen Universe")

According to JewishEncyclopedia.com under "Titles of Birth and Nobility" heading,"The prophet ('nabi') bore also the titles 'ro'eh' and 'hozeh'" = 'seer.'" (see JewishEncyclopedia: Jewish Titles)

At least one "Raey"/"Seer" attended Ani's funeral, shown above from the Papyrus of Ani dignitary grid.


Source: Wikimedia

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Scans of hieroglyphs from "An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary used by permission and copyright of Dover Publications Inc., NY.
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Online language lexicon sources:
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    Tigrigna/Tigrinya - Memhr.org
 
 

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